Commit 0559bf5c authored by Nicolás Reynolds's avatar Nicolás Reynolds Committed by Mauricio Pasquier Juan

Naturalización de la propiedad privada

parent 0f66c1fe
......@@ -126,10 +126,89 @@ directamente desde los objetos físicos.
[^ikea]: IKEA se dedica a la venta de muebles baratos listos para armar.
The proposition that the 3D printer/scanner will make physical goods copyable just as software code is open to challenge. The claim has a fleeting resemblance with what the actually existing machine can do. Here I will leave aside the technical objections that one may want to raise against this idea (cf. Söderberg, 2013). My concern in the present paper is with the imaginary that propels the development of the home-built technology in one or the other direction. The chief merit of the open source 3D printer is that it introduces a narrative where ”bits” and ”atoms” converge. The convergence is destabilising for a number of disciplinary boundaries and associated theories within the academy. The study of new media and communication is pulled into a larger circuit of production, commodification and labour relations. Differently put, the old critique of political economy reassert itself over the former, not-so-new-anymore subject field. In the paper I set out to mobilise the political economy analysis against the predominant critique of intellectual property. The convergence goes to show that there are no hard lines between private property ownership (over atoms) and intellectual property ownership (over bits/ideas). The exceptionalism claimed for information vis-à-vis physical goods, by practitioners and scholars alike, is the shaky ground upon which the house of intellectual property critique has been built. In what follows, I suggest that this argument draws on the limited self-understanding of free software/open source advocates, combined with the limited theoretical presumptions of the classical, and, to some extent, neo-classical economic paradigm. Briefly stated, this limit comes from a naturalistic understanding of private property.
When hackers and hobbyists shift their attention from (proprietary) software to (closed) hardware, the industrial economy as a whole becomes implicated in their critique of intellectual property. Intellectual property is put on an equal footing with private property. To followers of the open source 3D printer, this is perceived as a push-back against vested interests and intellectual property advocates. But the decision by hackers and hobbyists to open a new front in the struggle against intellectual property could be given an alternative interpretation. It might reflect developments that are taking place in the property regime at large. According to such an interpretation, intellectual property, far from being rendered obsolete by recent, technological advances, stands to become the dominant form of property everywhere. Tangible, physical goods will not be spared from the most offensive traits of intellectual property, such as intricate schemes of price discrimination and digitial rights management techniques. In addition to the 3D-printer and other digital fabrication tools, the rise of the so-called ”Internet-of-things” and ”augmented reality” points in the same direction: a bleeding-out from the virtual and informational realm to physical, embodied existence. Corresponding with this movement, one can foresee a future where ownership, market exchanges, rent extraction and labour relations are regulated through what I elect to call “augmented property”. The push towards augmented property demonstrates that naturalism has been abandoned by the most advanced section of the capitalist party, i,e, the Neo-liberal Thought Collective (cf. Mirowski, 2013). Here the constructivist lesson has been embraced because it holds out the promise that property and markets can be constructed 'all the way down'.
The proposition that the 3D printer/scanner will make physical goods
copyable just as software code is open to challenge. The claim has
a fleeting resemblance with what the actually existing machine can
do. Here I will leave aside the technical objections that one may want
to raise against this idea (cf. Söderberg, 2013). My concern in the
present paper is with the imaginary that propels the development of
the home-built technology in one or the other direction. The chief
merit of the open source 3D printer is that it introduces a narrative
where ”bits” and ”atoms” converge. The convergence is destabilising
for a number of disciplinary boundaries and associated theories within
the academy. The study of new media and communication is pulled
into a larger circuit of production, commodification and labour
relations. Differently put, the old critique of political economy
reassert itself over the former, not-so-new-anymore subject field. In
the paper I set out to mobilise the political economy analysis against
the predominant critique of intellectual property. The convergence goes
to show that there are no hard lines between private property ownership
(over atoms) and intellectual property ownership (over bits/ideas). The
exceptionalism claimed for information vis-à-vis physical goods, by
practitioners and scholars alike, is the shaky ground upon which the
house of intellectual property critique has been built. In what follows,
I suggest that this argument draws on the limited self-understanding
of free software/open source advocates, combined with the limited
theoretical presumptions of the classical, and, to some extent,
neo-classical economic paradigm. Briefly stated, this limit comes from a
naturalistic understanding of private property.
La propuesta donde el escaneo y la impresión tridimensionales harán a
los bienes físicos copiables como el código de software está abierta a
desafío. Existe una semejanza fugaz con lo que la máquina existente
puede realmente hacer. Aquí voy a dejar de lado las objeciones técnicas
que uno pueda tener sobre esta idea [@soderberg-2013]. Mi preocupación
en este artículo es sobre el imaginario que impulsa el desarrollo de la
tecnología construída en casa en una u otra dirección. El mérito
principal de la impresora tridimensional libre es que introduce una
narrativa donde convergen los "átomos" con los "bits". Esta
convergencia es desestabilizadora para un número de límites
disciplinarios y teorías asociadas dentro de la academia. El estudios
de los nuevos medios y la comunicación está asociado dentro de un
circuito más amplio de producción, _comodificación_ y relaciones
laborales. Puesto de otra manera, la vieja crítica de la economía
política se reafirmar sobre el no-tan-nuevo campo subjetivo. En este
artículo intento movilizar el análisis de la economía política contra la
crítica predominante de la propiedad intelectual. La convergencia
muestra que no hay límites duros entre la propiedad privada (sobre
átomos) y la propiedad intelectual (sobre bits o ideas). El
excepcionalismo de la información frente a los bienes físicos,
proclamado tanto por practicantes como por académicos, es la base no tan
firme sobre la que se ha construido la crítica de la propiedad
intelectual. A continuación, sugiero que este argumento descansa sobre
el limitado auto-entendimiento de los militantes del Software Libre y el
Código Abierto, combinado con las limitadas presunciones teoréticas del
paradigma económico clásico y hasta cierto punto, neo-clásico. En
resumen, este límite proviene de la naturalización de la propiedad
privada.
When hackers and hobbyists shift their attention from (proprietary)
software to (closed) hardware, the industrial economy as a whole becomes
implicated in their critique of intellectual property. Intellectual
property is put on an equal footing with private property. To followers
of the open source 3D printer, this is perceived as a push-back
against vested interests and intellectual property advocates. But
the decision by hackers and hobbyists to open a new front in the
struggle against intellectual property could be given an alternative
interpretation. It might reflect developments that are taking place
in the property regime at large. According to such an interpretation,
intellectual property, far from being rendered obsolete by recent,
technological advances, stands to become the dominant form of property
everywhere. Tangible, physical goods will not be spared from the most
offensive traits of intellectual property, such as intricate schemes
of price discrimination and digitial rights management techniques. In
addition to the 3D-printer and other digital fabrication tools, the
rise of the so-called ”Internet-of-things” and ”augmented reality”
points in the same direction: a bleeding-out from the virtual and
informational realm to physical, embodied existence. Corresponding
with this movement, one can foresee a future where ownership, market
exchanges, rent extraction and labour relations are regulated through
what I elect to call “augmented property”. The push towards augmented
property demonstrates that naturalism has been abandoned by the most
advanced section of the capitalist party, i,e, the Neo-liberal Thought
Collective (cf. Mirowski, 2013). Here the constructivist lesson has been
embraced because it holds out the promise that property and markets can
be constructed 'all the way down'.
......
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