README.md 16.9 KB
Newer Older
1 2 3 4
# Bitmask Android Client

This repository contains the source code for the [Bitmask](https://bitmask.net/) Android client. Bitmask Android offers one-click free VPN service from trusted providers of the LEAP stack.

kwadronaut's avatar
kwadronaut committed
5
To learn about the stack, visit [leap.se](https://leap.se).
6

7
Please see the [issues](https://0xacab.org/leap/bitmask_android/issues) section to report any bugs or feature requests, and to see the list of known issues.
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

# Table Of Contents

* [License](#license)
* [Installing](#installing)
  * [JDK](#jdk)
  * [C Libraries](#c-libraries)
  * [Android SDK](#android-sdk)
    * [With Android Studio](#with-android-studio)
    * [With Bash](#with-bash)
    * [Updating Your PATH](#updating-your-path)
    * [With Docker](#with-docker)
  * [Submodules](#submodules)
* [Compiling](#compiling)
  * [Just Build It!](#just-build-it)
  * [Debug APKs](#debug-apks)
  * [Release APKs](#release-apks)
  * [Signed Release APKs](#signed-release-apks)
* [Running Tests](#running-tests)
* [Debugging in an Emulator](#debugging-in-an-emulator)
  * [From Android Studio](#from-android-studio)
  * [From The Shell](#from-the-shell)
  * [Debian Gotchas](#debian-gotchas)
    * [Virtualization Not Enabled](#virtualization-not-enabled)
    * [Unpatched Filepaths Bug](#unpatched-filepaths-bug)
    * [Outdated GL Libraries](#outdated-gl-libraries)
* [Updating Submodules](#updating-submodules)
* [Acknowledgments](#acknowledgments)
* [Contributing](#contributing)

## License <a name="license"></a>
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
39

40
* [See LICENSE file](https://github.com/leapcode/bitmask_android/blob/master/LICENSE.txt)
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
41 42


43
## Installing <a name="installing"></a>
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
44

45 46 47 48 49 50
We will assume for convenience that you are installing on a Debian- or Ubuntu-based GNU/Linux machine. (Patches welcome with instructions for Mac, Windows, or other GNU/Linux distributions!)

The Bitmask Android Client has the following system-level dependencies:

* JDK v. 1.8
* Assorted 32-bit C libraries
51 52 53 54
* Android SDK Tools, v. 27.0.3, with these packages:
  * Platform-Tools, v. 27.0.3
  * Build-Tools, API v. 23-27
  * Platforms 23-27
55 56
  * Android Support Repository
  * Google Support Repository
57
  * NDK v. r16b (enables C code in Android)
58 59
* For running the app in an emulator, you will also need these packages:
  * Android Emulator
60
  * System Images for Android APIs 23-27
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77
* The ICS-OpenVpn submodule

You can install them as follows:

### JDK <a name="jdk"></a>

Install with:

```bash
sudo apt install default-jdk
```

### C Libraries <a name="c-libraries"></a>

These are necessary to make sure the program cross-compiles to 32-bit architectures successfully from 64-bit GNU/Linux machines:

```
78
sudo apt make gcc file install lib32stdc++ lib32z1
79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94
```

### Android SDK <a name="android-sdk"></a>

#### With Android Studio <a name="with-android-studio"></a>

All of the Android SDK and NDK packages are downloadable through Android Studio, which (sadly) is probably the most hassle-free way to go about things.

You can download Android studio here:

https://developer.android.com/studio/index.html

Once you've got it installed, use the `SDK Manager` tool (Android figure Icon with blue arrow second from the right in the tool pane) to download all the Android SDK and NDK depencencies listed above.

#### With Bash <a name="with-bash"></a>

95
Alternatively (eg: for build machines), you may download and unzip the `android-sdk` bundle from Google as follows (assuming an install location of `/opt/android-sdk-linux`:
96 97

```
98
curl -L https://dl.google.com/android/repository/sdk-tools-linux-3859397.zip -o sdk-tools.zip  \
99 100 101 102 103 104 105
    && unzip -q sdk-tools.zip -d /opt/android-sdk-linux \
    && rm -f sdk-tools.zip
```

To download the NDK (for cross-compiling and running the C code used in `ics-openvpn`), use:

```
106 107
curl -L http://dl.google.com/android/repository/android-ndk-r16b-linux-x86_64.zip -o ndk.zip  \
    && unzip ndk.zip -d /opt/android-sdk-linux/android-ndk-r16b \
108
    && rm -rf ndk.zip
109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123
```

After updating your PATH (see next step), you may now use the `sdkmanager` tool bundled with `android-sdk` to browse and install new sdk packages from Google.

To browse all available packages, run:

```shell
sdkmanager --list
```

To search for available packages of a certain type (eg: `tools`), run:

```shell
sdkmanager --list | grep tools
```
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
124

125
To install all of the dependencies listed above (targetting SDK versions 23 - 26), run:
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
126

127 128 129 130 131
```shell
sdkmanager tools
sdkmanager platform-tools
sdkmanager extras;android;m2repository
sdkmanager extras;google;m2repository
132
sdkmanager build-tools;27.0.3
133 134
sdkmanager build-tools;25.0.2
sdkmanager build-tools;23.0.3
135
sdkmanager platforms;android-27
136 137 138
sdkmanager platforms;android-25
sdkmanager platforms;android-23
```
139

140
#### Updating Your Path <a name="updating-your-path"></a>
141

aguestuser's avatar
aguestuser committed
142
Once you've installed Android SDK & NDK packages, you need to modify your PATH so you can invoke all the programs you just installed. You can do that with something like the following in your `~/.shellrc` or `~/.bash_profile`:
143

144 145 146 147 148 149 150
```shell
export ANDROID_HOME=<path/where/you/installed/android/sdk>
export ANDROID_NDK_HOME=$ANDROID_HOME/ndk-bundle
export PATH=$ANDROID_NDK_HOME:$PATH
export PATH=$ANDROID_HOME/platform-tools:$PATH
export PATH=$ANDROID_HOME/tools/bin:$PATH
```
151

aguestuser's avatar
aguestuser committed
152 153
NOTE: On GNU/Linux machines, Android Studio installs the Android SDK in `~/Android/Sdk/`. Our dockerfile installs it in `/opt/android-sdk-linux`. You can install it wherever you want! Just be sure to remember where so you can add it to your PATH! :)

154
#### With Docker <a name="with-docker"></a>
155

156
Geesh! If all that above seems like a lot, it is!
157

158
To keep ourselves from messing it up all the time everyone someone new joins the project, we made a Dockerfile that creates the above environment with one line. You can pull the image and run builds from inside it, or consult the [Dockerfile](/docker/android-sdk.dockerfile) itself for requirements that your system might need but be missing.
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
159

160
Assuming you've already [installed docker](https://docs.docker.com/engine/installation/), you can pull the image with:
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
161

162
``` shell
163
docker pull 0xacab.org:4567/leap/bitmask_android/android-ndk:latest
164
```
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
165

166
Run the image with:
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
167

168
``` shell
169
docker run --rm -it 0xacab.org:4567/leap/bitmask_android/android-ndk:latest
170 171
```
More likely than not, you'll want to run the image with the source code mounted. You can do that with:
172

173 174
``` shell
cd <path/to/bitmask_android>
175
docker run --rm -it -v`pwd`:/bitmask_android -t 0xacab.org:4567/leap/bitmask_android/android-ndk:latest
176
```
177

178

179
### Submodules <a name="submodules"></a>
180

181
We depend on [ics-openvpn](https://github.com/schwabe/ics-openvpn) as an interface to Android's OpenVPN implementation. We include it as a [git submodule](https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Git-Tools-Submodules) in our project, which requires that we initialize and update it (and its respective upstream submodule dependencies) in order to compile and run Bitmask Android.
182

183
We do so with:
184

185 186 187 188 189
```bash
cd <path/to/bitmask_android>
git submodule init
git submodule update --init --recursive
```
190

191
## Compiling <a name="compiling"></a>
192

193
You have lots of options for compiling, all of which will output Android-executable `apk` packages to `/bitmask_android/app/build/outputs/apk/`.
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
194

195
### Just Build It! <a name="just-build-it"></a>
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
196

197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210
If you compile the project for the first time you'll have to compile the dependencies. This can be done with:

```
./build_deps.sh
```
This command will create all libs we need for Bitmask.
 
If you want to to have a clean build of all submodules run
```
./cleanProject.sh
```
before you call `./build_deps.sh`. That script removes all build files and does the git submodule init and update job for you.  

You are then welcome to run:
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
211

212 213 214
```
./gradlew build
```
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
215

216 217 218 219 220 221 222
This will compile the code and run the tests, but not output any `apk` packages. As such, it's not all that useful. :)

### Debug APKs <a name="debug-apks"></a>

To assemble debug packages for running locally or testing in CI, run:

```bash
223
./build_deps.sh
224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233
./gradlew assembleDebug
```

This will output `app-insecure-debug.apk` and `app-production-debug.apk` to `/bitmask_android/app/build/outputs/apk/`.

### Release APKs <a name="release-apks"></a>

To assemble release packages, run:

```bash
234
./build_deps.sh
235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256
./gradlew assembleRelease
```

This will output `app-insecure-release.apk` and `app-production-release.apk` to `/bitmask_android/app/build/outputs/apk/`.

### Signed Release APKs <a name="signed-release-apks"></a>

If you want to release a signed APK (which you *must* do to publish the app to the Google Play store), you'll have to create a gradle.properties file in the project root with the following structure:

```properties
storeFileProperty=<fullPath>
storePasswordProperty=<store password without quotation marks>
keyAliasProperty=<key alias without quotation marks>
keyPasswordProperty=<key password without quotation marks>
```

### Building In Docker <a name="building-in-docker"></a>

If you want to make sure the environment you use to build APKs matches exactly the environment that Gitlab will use to build and publish artifacts, you can run any of the above build commands from inside Docker. To assemble a release build this way, run the following commands:

``` shell
$ cd <path/to/bitmask_android>
257
$ sudo docker run --rm -it -v `pwd`:/bitmask_android 0xacab.org:4567/leap/bitmask_android/android-ndk:latest
258
# cd /bitmask_android
259 260
# ./cleanProject.sh
# ./build_deps.sh
261 262 263 264
# ./gradlew assembleRelease
```

## Running Tests <a name="running-tests"></a>
265 266

To run the automated tests:
267

268
   1. Run an emulator
269 270 271 272
   2. Unlock Android
   3. Issue the command ./gradlew connectedCheck
   4. Pay attention and check the "Trust this app" checkbox, if you don't do so tests won't run.

273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295

## Debugging in an Emulator <a name="debugging-in-an-emulator"></a>

You can run the app in an emulator running any version of Android and simulating (almost) any device. To run it you'll have to create an emulator, run the emulator, and then load an assembled APK of the app onto the emulator. (You can then use all sort of nifty tools in [Anroid Debug Bridge](https://developer.android.com/studio/command-line/adb.html) to tail the logs and debug the app.)

Assuming you've already tackled (or don't need to tackle) the [Debian Gotchas](#debian-gotchas) listed below, you can do that using either Android Studio or a bash shell as follows:

### From Android Studio <a name="from-android-studio"></a>

To create an emulator:

* Select `Tools/Android/AVD Manager` from the application menu
* Follow the instructions

To run a pre-existing emulator:

* Open the `AVD Manager` as above
* Press the "Play" button next to the emulator you want to run

To run the app:

* Ensure you have an emulator running
* Open the left-hand project pane (Meta-1 or Cmd-1, depending on your keybindings)
296 297 298
* Navigate to `bitmask_android/app/src/main/java/se/leap/bitmaskclient/StartActivity`
* Right-click over the `StartActivity` filename and click the `Run 'StartActivity'` option (or use Shift-Ctl-F10 or Shift-Ctl-R, depending on your keybindings)
* After you have done this once, you should be able to simply select `StartActivity` from the dropdown menu next to the big green arrow in the toolbar, then click the green arrow to run the app.
299 300

### From the Shell <a name="from-the-shell"></a>
301

302
To list the available avd images for creating an emulator:
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
303

304 305 306
``` shell
avdmanager list
```
307

308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462
To create an emulator:

``` shell
avdmanager create avd
```

To list the emulators you have already created:

``` shell
avdmanager list avd
```

To run a pre-existing emulator called `Nexus_5_API_25`:

``` shell
emulator @Nexus_5_API_15
```

Verify the device is running with:

``` shell
adb devices
```

You should see something like:

``` shell
List of devices attached
emulator-5554 device
```
Install APK with:

``` shell
abd install <path/to/your>.apk
```

Uninstall with:

``` shell
abd uninstall se.leap.bitmaskclient
```
Install with option to reinstall:

``` shell
abd install -r <path/to/your/apk>
```

### Debian Gotchas <a name="debian-gotchas"></a>

If you are running Debian on a 64-bit machine, your emulator will likely not work out of the gate. Test to see if this is the case by:

* first creating an emulator in Android Studio (with name, eg, `Nexus_5_API_25`)
* then running:
   ```shell
   cd ~/
   emulator @<name_of_your_emulator>
   ```
If you can launch an emulator, HUZZAH! If not, you likely have one of 3 problems:

#### 1. Virtualization Not Enabled <a name="virtualization-not-enabled"></a>

Boo! Try turning it on. The second half of [this article](https://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/Fedora/13/html/Virtualization_Guide/sect-Virtualization-Troubleshooting-Enabling_Intel_VT_and_AMD_V_virtualization_hardware_extensions_in_BIOS.html) is a decent enough guide.

#### 2. Unpatched Filepaths Bug <a name="unpatched-filepaths-bug"></a>

**Symptoms:** If you have this bug, you will see something like the following when you try to spin up an emulator:

``` shell
[140500439390016]:ERROR:./android/qt/qt_setup.cpp:28:Qt library not found at ../emulator/lib64/qt/lib
Could not launch '../emulator/qemu/linux-x86_64/qemu-system-i386': No such file or directory
```
As [documented here](https://stackoverflow.com/questions/42554337/cannot-launch-avd-in-emulatorqt-library-not-found), there is a standing bug in the version of `emulator` packaged for emulator that assumes it always runs from within the `$ANDROID_HOME/emulator` directory, and can thus safely use relative filepaths, when in fact this is almost never the case. (Cool bug!)

**Fixes:**

You have a couple options. The second is more robust:

1. Always run emulator from within its own directory (clunky!):

``` shell
 cd "$(dirname "$(which emulator)")"
 emulator <name_of_your_emulator>
```

2. Insert a line in your `~/.bashrc` to automatically navigate to the correct directory (and back) whenever you invoke `emulator`:

 ```shell
function emulator { pushd `pwd`; cd "$(dirname "$(which emulator)")" && ./emulator "$@"; popd;}
```

#### 3. Outdated GL Libraries <a name="outdated-gl-libraries"></a>

**Symptoms:** If you have this bug, you will see something like the following:

``` shell
libGL error: failed to load driver: swrast
X Error of failed request:  BadValue (integer parameter out of range for  operation)
# redacted incredibly long stack trace
```

As documented [here](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/36554322/cannot-start-emulator-in-android-studio-2-0), the current emulator package ships without outdated versions of LibGL libraries. To work around this:

1. Install modern GL libriaries with:

``` shell
sudo apt-get install mesa-utils
```

2. Ensure that `emulator` always uses the correct libraries by either:

  a. always calling `emulator` with the `-use-system-libs` flag, like so:

  ``` shell
  emulator -use-system-libs -avd Nexus_5_API_25
  ```
  b. adding the following line to your ~/.bashrc or ~/.bash_profile:

  ```shell
  export ANDROID_EMULATOR_USE_SYSTEM_LIBS=1
  ```

**Special Android Studio Debian Bonus Gotcha:**

Assuming you have made all the above fixes (great job!), to be able to launch emulators from Android Studio, you must either:

1. Use the environment variable solution above (option a), then *always* launch Android Studio from a bash shell with:

``` shell
studio
```

This means never using the desktop launcher. :(

2. If you want to use the desktop launcher:

  * You must *always* launch emulators from the terminal. :(
  * But: you can quickly access a terminal inside of Android Studio with `OPTION-F12`

## Updating Submodules <a name="updating-submodules"></a>

If you need to refresh of our upstream dependency on ics-openvpn, you may do so with:

``` shell
cd <path/to/bitmask_android>
./gradlew updateIcsOpenVpn
```

Alternately:

```shell
cd <path/to/bitmask_android>
cd ics-openvpn
git remote add upstream https://github.com/schwabe/ics-openvpn.git
git pull --rebase upstream master
```
463 464
A bunch of conflicts may arise. The guidelines are:

Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
465 466 467 468
    1. Methods in HEAD (upstream) completely removed from Bitmask should be removed again (e.g. askPW)
    2. Sometimes, Dashboard.class is in Bitmask while in ics-openvpn it is replaced by MainActivity.class and other classes. Keep removing them to keep Dashboard.class in there.
    3. Some resources files are stripped from several entries. Remove them if possible (check the code we compile is not using anything else new).

469
## Acknowledgments <a name="acknowledgments"></a>
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
470 471 472

This project bases its work in [ics-openvpn project](https://code.google.com/p/ics-openvpn/).

473
## Reporting Bugs <a name="reporting-bugs"></a>
474
Please file bug tickets on our main [development platform](https://0xacab.org/leap/bitmask_android/issues). You can either create an account on 0xacab.org or simply login with your github.com or gitlab.com account to create new tickets.
475

476
## Contributing <a name="contributing"></a>
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
477

kwadronaut's avatar
kwadronaut committed
478
Please fork this repository and contribute back using [pull requests](https://0xacab.org/leap/bitmask_android/merge_requests).
Parménides GV's avatar
Parménides GV committed
479 480 481

Our preferred method for receiving translations is our [Transifex project](https://www.transifex.com/projects/p/bitmask-android).

482
Any contributions, large or small, major features, bug fixes, additional language translations, unit/integration tests are welcomed and appreciated but will be thoroughly reviewed and discussed.